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Breed Risk Lab Testing

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DISEASE RISKS BY BREED OF DOG

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited and certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention. Some simply require awareness on the part of the owner as to what to watch for and when to call the veterinarian. We try to make sure that every owner of an at-risk breed knows about the diseases and problems that could affect their dog. Here is a sampling of some of these problems.

 

ACL tear: A torn anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL is the most common orthopedic injury of active dogs. (You might also see this same ligament referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament or CCL.) It usually requires expensive surgery to repair. For a working dog, it can be career shortening, just as torn cranial cruciate ligament can be to football players. If not surgically corrected, severe arthritis eventually results.

It can occur in any breed, but those more at risk include Doberman pinschers, Rottweilers, Labrador retrievers and other large hunting breeds, Chow Chows, bulldogs, and any dog that has straight up and down hind leg conformation (as vs. slopey hind legs that angle backwards as in German shepherds).

            Recommendations: A high quality diet strengthens muscles, ligaments, tendons & bones, and has been shown to reduce injury rates. Sensible exercise routines help prevent injuries, too. Just as in people, over-exercising without proper warm-up or conditioning can cause problems. Dogs that do a lot of leaping, as with Frisbee tossing or agility work, are also more vulnerable. Obesity is also a huge factor, as overweight dogs are much more likely to have injuries to joints and ligaments. Pet insurance is a good idea, as surgery and rehabilitation can be expensive.

 

Cardiomyopathy: Cardiomyopathy is the disease that leads to most human heart transplants. The heart becomes larger and thinner and weaker until it can no longer effectively pump blood to the body. Signs may be gradual heart failure or sometimes sudden death from an irregular heart rhythm.

Breeds at risk include the Boxer; Cavalier King Charles spaniel and English cocker spaniel (100% are affected by age ten); Doberman pinscher (5% of Dobies die of this disease every year); all the giant breeds – St. Bernard, Great Dane, Irish wolfhound, Newfoundland, etc.

Recommendation for at-risk breeds: Annual ECG screening after age 1. If abnormalities are detected, an echocardiogram will confirm the diagnosis. For those breeds at highest risk, an echocardiogram, or ultrasound of the heart, should be done annually after age 5-6.

In Boxers, there may be a link between taurine deficiency & cardiomyopathy. A taurine supplement is recommended.

 

GDV: Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus, also known as “bloat” usually occurs in dogs with deep, narrow chests – Greyhounds, collies, Great Danes, German shepherds and many other breeds. When a dog bloats, the stomach twists on itself and fills with gas. The twisting cuts off blood supply to the stomach, and sometimes the spleen. Left untreated, the disease is quickly fatal, sometimes in as little as 30 minutes.

Signs include retching or dry heaving; abdominal pain – grunting, laying in a “prayer position” with the front legs down and the back legs standing up; restlessness or distress; or a bulging out behind the ribs on the left side of the body.

            Recommendation: Know what to watch for. If symptoms develop, rush your pet to an emergency clinic if one is available to you. They have a higher success rate for surgically repairing this problem because they do many more of them than the average practitioner. You must act quickly. The needed surgery is expensive, and one of the best reasons to have pet insurance. Don’t let your dog exercise strenuously after meals, and feed 2-3 smaller meals per day vs. one large one.

 

Hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma: These are two of the more common tumors of older large breed dogs. The hemangioma is the non-cancerous form, about 30% of cases, and hemangiosarcoma is the cancerous kind. They are tumors that arise from blood vessels and usually occur in organs with lots of blood supply – the spleen is especially common, and the liver, kidneys, heart or skin may be other sites. These tumors fill with blood and then will break open and bleed.

Since they usually occur internally you cannot see the bleeding from the outside. You will see a dog that becomes pale and weak over a 6-24 hour period of time. He may become unable to walk or get up and breathing may become labored. You can also see a large or distended abdomen if the tumor is large – and some can be volleyball size or larger before the dog becomes ill.

            Look at the color of the gums, tongue or inner eyelids if your dog shows these symptoms. If these look pale or white your dog probably needs emergency blood transfusions, and surgery to remove the tumor. If the tumor is benign, and in a location where it can be removed, surgery will be curative. If it is cancerous, the surgery will buy you time with your pet.

            Recommendation: Know what to watch for and seek help if signs appear. We often find clues that one of these tumors is present on senior wellness testing, so have your senior dog’s blood tested at least annually.

 

Respiratory Distress Syndrome: This disease affects brachycephalic dogs and cats – those with a squished in face, such as bulldogs, Pekingese, Persians and pugs. These breeds have the same amount of tissue in their noses and throats as other dogs and cats, but there is no place for it to go. As a consequence the soft palate – the soft part of the back of the roof of the mouth – is too long for the size of their mouth and hangs down into the airway. To add to their problems, their nostrils are often too small, and sometimes the trachea, or windpipe, is undersized.

            All these things lead to a narrow and obstructed airway. Many of these dogs can barely breathe, have sleep apnea and snore, contract repeated respiratory infections, develop swelling and congestion in their throats that worsens the problem, and die at an early age. They are also more prone to heat stroke and have a higher risk for anesthetic complications.

            Recommendation: Correct these defects with surgery early on, ideally at the time of spaying or neutering. The long soft palate can be shortened, the nostrils can be snipped open and more normal breathing will be restored. Some dogs are not affected enough to need surgery early on but become more problematic as they get older, in which case surgery can be done later on.


BREED RISK KEY 

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The most common problems for each breed are listed here, but not every possible genetic disease. Items in bold are things you might want to recommend to clients based on genetic susceptibility.

 

Afghan Hound

DCM- annual ECG, annual echo > age 5

Demodex

Drug sensitivity: Barbiturates - avoid use

GDV: Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

Hypothyroidism - T4 early & annually

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Mats, burrs & hot spots

Ophthalmic: Juvenile cataracts; lipid corneal dystrophy; PRA when < age 3

Osteosarcoma - X-rays if lame

 

Airedale Terrier

DCM, more common in males - annual ECG

Derm: Demodex; follicular dysplasia presenting as flank alopecia at 2-4 yrs of age & also flank alopecia

Hypothyroidism – Annual T4 after age 2

Neoplasia: Pancreatic carcinoma; cutaneous melanoma & hemangioma; lymphosarcoma; nasal carcinoma

Ophtho: Corneal dystrophy at 4-12 months of age; Pannus at 1-2 years; PRA around age 3

Von Willebrand’s factor may be low but generally no C/S

 

Akita

Derm: Demodex, generalized - skin scrape suspicious lesions; Sebaceous adenitis; Zinc-responsive dermatosis

Diabetes: Older females - Client education

GDV – Client education

Hypothyroidism - Annual T4 after age 6

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Neoplasia: Anal Gland Carcinoma, Sebaceous Gland Tumors, Osteosarcoma – x-ray older lame dogs

Ophthalmic: Glaucoma age 2-4- annual IOP, PRA age 1-5

Orthopedic: ACL tear – client education, Pet Insurance; Polyarthritis

 

American Eskimo

Risk for cataracts, slight risk for epilepsy.

Mats, burrs, hot spots.

 

American Staffordshire terrier

ACL tear – Client Education, Pet Insurance

Derm: Solar dermatitis

Neoplasia: Cutaneous hemangiosarcoma & histiocytoma, MCT – Client education, FNA all lumps

Ophtho: Cataracts; PRA

 

Australian Cattle Dog

Ophtho: Cataracts, lens luxation, PRA

Urolithiasis, cysteine – annual U/A

 

Australian Shepherd

Collie eye anomaly

Ivermectin sensitivity

 

Basenji

The Basenji breed associations have excellent materials on their website, so for Basenjis I generally just print something off the site.

Fanconi Syndrome - Client education, U/A & UPC annually

GI: Hypertrophic gastritis; PLE from lymphangiectasia; immunoproliferative enteropathy of Basenjis

Ophthalmic: PPM 40-90% prevalence - careful eye exams; cataracts; coloboma

PKD - DNA test available

Reproductive: 1 heat cycle per year

Uroliths, cysteine - annual U/A

 

Basset Hound

Derm: Otitis (excessive wax), seborrhea/malassezia; Ectropion/entropion; Lip fold pyoderma

GI: GDV – Client education; FB ingestion, esp. rocks

IVDD - wt. control, Client education

MCT - FNA all lumps

Orthopedic - UAP

Periodontal Disease, epuli, hyperplastic gums - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc., gingivectomy prn

Urolithiasis - cystine - annual U/A

 

Beagle

Cherry eye - Client  education

Cushings - PDH

FB ingestion!! Client education

Glaucoma, often age 2-5. IOP early on.

IVDD - wt. control, O. education, restrict jumping up

Lymphoma

Periodontal Disease - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

 

Bernese Mountain Dog

DCM- annual ECG, annual echo > age 5

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma

GI: Chronic diarrhea

GN - annual urine Protein:Creatinine

Neurological: Epilepsy – genetic screening when available

Orthopedic – ACL – Client education, Pet insurance; OCD - watch growth rate; Hip Dysplasia - 25% incidence - X-ray early, wt. control

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Bichon Frise

Entropion

Haemophilia - B or Factor IX def. - BBT before Sx.

IVDD - wt. control, restrict jumping - Client  education

Periodontal Disease - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

Urolithiasis, all kinds - Annual U/A.

 

Bloodhound/Coonhound

ACL tear – Client Education, Pet Insurance

GDV: Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

Hemangioma, cutaneous (bloodhounds, but not coonhounds)

Lip fold pyoderma

Ophtho: Cherry eye; Ectropion & entropion; KCS- STT after age 9

 

Border Collie

Drug sensitivity – ivermectins

OCD shoulders, more common in males, 50% are bilateral, onset usually 4-7 mo. of age

Ophthalmic: Cataracts age 4-6, PRA, Collie Eye Anomaly; Glaucoma from lens luxation, often at age 3-5 yrs

 

Boston terrier

Derm: Alopecia, atopy, Cushings (PDH) - Client education

Demodex - skin scrape early if symptoms

Dystocia - Client education if breeding

GI: Pyloric stenosis

Hydrocephalus

Neoplasia: MCT, Melanoma - FNA/remove all lumps

Ophthalmic: Cherry eye, Corneal ulcers, Pigmentary keratitis, Corneal dystrophy - Client education; Cataracts – both juvenile & late onset; Iris cysts; Vitreal syneresis > glaucoma & cataracts; Proptosis

KCS - STT early & often

Periodontal Dz - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

Respiratory dysplasia, including hypoplastic trachea - Client education, early surgery prn, give estimate for soft palate surgery w/ spay/neuter estimate, DVM to intubate

 

Bouvier des Flandres

Derm: Flank alopecia

Ophtho: Cataracts; Glaucoma - annual IOP

Orthopedic: ACL tear - Client education, Pet insurance; Hip dysplasia – X-rays when young; OCD

Neoplasia: Osteosarcoma – x-ray if lame; SCC

 

Boxer

Behavior: Males can be aggressive

Cardiac: Aortic stenosis; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy – genetic screening test; SSS; DCM/Taurine def. - annual ECG/Holter monitor

Derm: Alopecia, atopy, Cushings (PDH) - Client education; Lip fold pyoderma

Pododermatitis - check feet

Drug sensitivity: No acepromazine

GI: L-P colitis, food allergy, pyloric stenosis - Client education

GDV - offer stomach tack at spay/neuter

Neoplasia: Hemangiosarc, lymphoma, MCT, melanoma, SCC - FNA/Biopsy everything!

Ophthalmic: Cherry eye, corneal ulcers - Client education

Orthopedic: ACL tear - Client education, Pet insurance

Periodontal Disease, epuli & hyperplastic gums - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc., gingivectomy prn

 

Brittany Spaniel

Hip dysplasia, 15th worst breed – X-ray early

Periodontal disease – frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

 

Bulldog, English & French

Derm: Alopecia, Demodex, Lip fold pyoderma, Pododermatitis, Skin fold excess

Dystocia - Client education if breeding

GI: Flatulence due to Respiratory dysfunction

Heat Stroke: No exercise in hot/humid weather, avoid car rides in hot weather

Hemophilia, French bulldogs – BBT before Sx

Hydrocephalus - Check for open fontanelles, R/O if signs

IMHA/IMTP - Client education w/ vaccine release

Neoplasia: Lymphoma, MCT, Brain tumors (French bulldogs) - FNA/Biopsy lumps

Ophthalmic: Cataracts (French bulldogs); Cherry eye, Corneal Ulcers - Client education; Distichiasis - watch for signs; KCS - STT annually

Orthopedic: ACL - Client education, Pet Insurance. Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education; Hemivertebrae – x-ray spine w/ spay/neuter, UAP

Periodontal disease – frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

Respiratory Dysplasia: Client education w/ last puppy visit, give estimate for soft palate surgery w/ spay/neuter estimate, DVM to intubate, X-ray for hypoplastic trachea, avoid heat & heavy exercise

Urolithiasis: Cystine or Urate - annual U/A

 

Bull Terrier

ACL – Client education, Pet insurance

Demodex – skin scrape suspicious lesions

Neoplasia: Actinic keratosis; MCT – FNA lumps

Urological: Familial renal disease, 1-8 yrs of age – annual UPC; PKD at 4-18 mo. of age

 

Cairn terrier

Derm: Atopy - Client education

Diabetes – Wt. control, Client education

GI: Portosystemic Shunt, polycystic liver Disease

Haemophilia: B, IX or Pyruvate Kinase deficiency – BBT before Sx

Ophthalmic: Refractory Corneal Ulcers, Ocular Melanosis, Lens Luxation, Cataracts, Retinal Dysplasia.

Orthopedic: Craniomandibular Osteopathy

Polycystic Kidney Disease - annual U/A

Repro: Cryptorchidism

 

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

DCM, MVI: ECG annually > 1 yr, echo annually once > 6 yrs old

Ophtho: Cataracts as young adults; Lipid corneal dystrophy; KCS: STT annually > 6 yrs; Proptosis – Client education

Platelet abnormalities: Large platelets, low count – Baseline CBC when young

Respiratory dysplasia: Client education last puppy visit, DVM to intubate, soft palate surgery w/ spay/neuter or later on prn

 

Chesapeake Bay Retriever

Corneal ulcers - Client education

Haemophilia - Type III, BBT before Surgery

Hypothyroidism – annual T4 after age 6

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Orthopedic: ACL tear – client education, Pet insurance; Hip dysplasia- X-rays early, Client education; OCD – Client education

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Chihuahua

Alopecia - Client education

Behavior: Often snappy w/ strangers & children

Hydrocephalus: Check for open fontanelles, R/O if signs

Melanoma: Remove suspicious lumps

MVI: Cardiac work-up when murmur arises

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, Glaucoma due to lens luxation

Orthopedic: Patellar luxation - Client education, careful exam

Periodontal Disease - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

Tracheal collapse - X-ray to R/O if coughing

Urolithiasis, cysteine - annual U/A

 

Chow Chow

ACL tear: Client education, no jumping

Behavior: often aggressive, always muzzle for procedures

Derm: Stress alopecia; Growth hormone alopecia; Lip fold pyoderma; Mats, burrs & hot spots; Skin fold excess

Ectropion/Entropion: May require multiple surgeries to correct

Glaucoma, narrow angle, starting age 3-6: IOP annually by age 3

 

Cocker Spaniel

Behavior: Often fearful & snappy

Cardiac: DCM - echos after age 6; SSS - annual ECG; MVI, taurine def. - cardiac work-up & supplement taurine when murmur detected

Dermatology: Atopy: Follicular dysplasia - hair may not regrow after clipping. Lip fold pyoderma; Seborrhea, hyperpigmentation - R/O Vit. A def., food allergy, hypothyroidism

Haemophilia: Type B, IX or X - BBT before Surgery

IMHA, IMTP - Client education w/ vaccine release, sulfas

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, Cherry eye, Corneal ulcers, Glaucoma (narrow angle or DT lens luxation, starting age 3.5-9), KCS, PRA. IOP & STT annually, Client education

IVDD - Client education, no jumping, wt. control

Neoplasia: Lymphoma, melanoma - FNA/Biopsy all lumps

Orthopedic: ACL tears, patellar luxation - Client education

Otitis - Clean ears weekly, Client education

Periodontal Dz - Frequent Dentals, Porphyromonas vaccine

Urolithiasis: Struvite or Calcium oxylate - annual U/A

 

Collie

Collie Eye anomaly - eye screening if breeding

Derm: Dermatomyositis - R/O if dermatitis; Mats, burrs & hot spots

Drug sensitivity: Ivermectin - use Interceptor/Sentinel, or genetic screening

Food allergy

GI: Lymphoplasmacytic IBD in rough coated collies

IMHA, IMTP - Client education w/ vaccine release

Laryngeal paralysis

Neuro: Degenerative myelopathy – genetic screening

 

Corgi

Corneal ulcers - Client education

Degenerative myelopathy - R/O if signs appear, genetic screening

IVDD - wt. control, no jumping, Client education

Urolithiasis, cysteine - annual U/A

 

Dachshund

Behavior: Fearful

Cardiac: MVI, SSS - annual ECG, cardiac work-up w/ murmur

Cushing's Disease (PDH) - R/O if signs, Client education

Derm: Alopecia, Hypothyroidism, Malassezia, Seborrhea

Drug sensitivity: Lepto allergy is common - no Lepto if rxn

IVDD - Wt. control, no jumping, Client education

Ophthalmic: Corneal ulcers, Primary Glaucoma, usually age 4-9 - Client education, annual IOP after age 4

Periodontal Disease - frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

 

Dalmatian

ACL – Client education, Pet insurance

Behavior: Males may be aggressive

Derm: Atopy; Cutaneous hemangioma; food allergy; pododermatitis; solar keratitis

DCM – usually a mild form - Annual ECG.

Ophthalmic: PRA, KCS & Pannus - R/O if symptoms, STT annually

Respiratory dysplasia: Laryngeal paralysis, Elongated soft palate - watch for signs, DVM to intubate, Client education

Urolithiasis: Urate stones very common - U/D recommended unless on other Rx diet, annual U/A

 

Doberman pinscher

Behavior: Males may be aggressive; Flank Sucking, Lick Granulomas

DCM: Very common! - annual ECG, annual echo > age 6

Derm: Seasonal Flank Alopecia; Lick granulomas; Pemphigus; Zinc-responsive Dermatosis

Drug Reactions: No Sulfas

GI: FB; GDV – Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

GN - annual Urine Protein:Creatinine Ratio

Haemophilia: Von Willebrand's - BBT before Sx, or genetic screening

Hepatitis - annual chem panel

Hypothyroidism: Very common, often age 2-6 - annual T4

IVDD (cervical), Wobblers - R/O if signs

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, PRA

Orthopedic: ACL tear – Client education, Pet insurance

Parvovirus susceptibility: extra Parvo vacc. at 5 mo., annual after that - no 3 yr Parvo vacc.

 

English Cocker

Same as for American with the addition of high risk for cardiomyopathy – 100% incidence by age 10 - Echo annually after age 6.

Also familial renal Dz 6 mo. to 2 years - UPC at age 6 mo. & Q 6-12 mo. x 2 yrs afterwards.

 

English setter

Derm: Atopy - Client education; Lip fold pyoderma; Otitis – Client education

GDV – Client education

Ophthalmic: PRA

Orthopedic: Hip Dysplasia - X-ray hips early, Client education

 

Fox Terrier

Atopy - Client education

GI: Megaesophagus - R/O if vomiting

Glaucoma: Primary or lens luxation - IOP annually

Neoplasia: Fibroma; Hemangiopericytoma; Schwannoma; Insulinoma; MCT - FNA all lumps

 

German Shepherd

Behavior: Fearful or aggressive

Cushings: Both PDH & Adrenal

Derm: Food allergic otitis, often just 1 ear - Client education, regular ear cleaning. Pododermatitis, Seborrhea, Malassezia, Zinc-responsive dermatitis – work-up prn

GDV - Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

GI: Megaesophagus, SIBO, Lymphocytic-Plasmacytic or Eosinophilic IBD; Perianal fistula - thorough work-up for GI signs, usually multiple etiologies

Haemophilia: A & B or Von Willebrand's - BBT before Sx, or genetic screening

Hemangiosarcoma - Client education, CBC w/ senior bloodwork

IVDD: Thoraco-lumbar & lumbosacral

Lymphoma - Client education

Ophthalmic: Corneal ulcers, KCS, Pannus - STT annually

Orthopedic: Eo-Pan; Hip Dysplasia - hip x-rays while young; Degenerative Myelopathy - R/O IVDD (lumbosacral) also if signs, genetic screeing; OCD

Masticatory Myopathy, Myasthenia Gravis; Panosteitis

 

Golden Retriever

Derm: Atopy, Food allergy, Lip fold pyoderma; Otitis, pododermatitis

Check feet, Client education, weekly ear cleaning

GI: Food all., Megaesophagus, FB ingestion - R/O if signs

Hemangiosarcoma - CBC w/ senior bloodwork

Hypothyroidism - annual T4 >age 6, earlier prn

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Neoplasia - lymphoma (cutaneous), melanoma, MCT - FNA or Biopsy all skin lumps

Neuro: Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) – genetic screening

Orthopedic – ACL tear – client education; Myasthenia Gravis - R/O if signs; OCD - watch growth rate, Client education, X-ray if signs;  Hip Dysplasia - hip X-rays while young, Client education

Renal dysplasia - annual U/A, chem panel when young

 

Great Dane

Behavior: Fearful or aggressive

DCM, esp. males: Annual ECG, annual echo > age 5

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma; Pododermatitis; Zinc-responsive Dermatosis

GDV - Client education, offer stomach tack at spay/neuter

Hypothyroidism, age 2-6 - T4 annually > age 2

Ophthalmic: Ectropion/entropion; cataracts, typical onset 2 yrs old

Orthopedic: OCD, Wobblers

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Greater Swiss Mountain Dog

DCM, esp. males: Annual ECG, annual echo > age 5

Hypothyroidism - T4 annually > age 5 or sooner prn

Lip fold pyoderma

Orthopedic: ACL – Client education, Pet insurance; Hip dysplasia - X-ray hips while young; OCD, Wobblers, OSA - X-ray if signs

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Great Pyrenees

Behavior: Fearful or aggressive

DCM, esp. males: Annual ECG, annual echo > age 5

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma; Pododermatitis, Zinc-responsive Dermatosis

GDV - Client education, offer stomach tack at spay/neuter

Hypothyroidism - T4 annually > age 5 or sooner prn

Orthopedic: ACL – Client education, Pet insurance; Hip dysplasia – X-ray hips while young; OCD, Wobblers, OSA - X-ray if signs

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Greyhound

Derm: Alopecia, mostly females; Hypothyroidism - T4 early & annually but be aware normal is lower for the breed

Drug sensitivity: Barbiturates - avoid use

GDV: Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

Hypertension & High PCV - Annual BP & PCV

Ophthalmic: Pannus

Orthopedic: Polyarthritis, exertional myopathy - R/O if signs

Osteosarcoma - X-rays if lame

Periodontal Dz - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vaccine

 

Irish Setter, Gordon Setter

Derm: Atopy, Lip fold pyoderma; Malassezia; Mats, burrs & hot spots

GI: FB; GDV

Laryngeal Paralysis - Client education

Neoplasia: Sebaceous gland cysts, Hemangiopericytoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Insulinoma

Ophthalmic: Refractory Corneal Ulcers, Glaucoma, Cataracts, PRA

 

Irish terrier

Derm: Footpad hyperkeratosis

Neoplasia: Melanoma - Remove suspicious lumps

 

Irish Wolfhound

DCM – annual ECG, echo annually after age 5

GDV – Client education, offer stomach tack at spay or neuter

Hypothyroid, age 2-6 – T4 annually

Haemophilia: Von Willebrand's - ACT before Surgery

Ophthalmic: Cataracts ages 1-2 or 5-7, PRA

Orthopedic: Hip dysplasia – X-rays while young; OCD - watch growth rate, good diet; Patellar Luxation, Wobblers

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Italian Greyhound & whippet

Alopecia

Drug sensitivity – barbiturates

Broken legs – advise pet insurance

Ophtho: Cataracts, glaucoma about age 2 – annual IOP

Periodontal Dz - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vaccine

 

Jack Russel Terrier

Cushings: PDH

Diabetes: Wt. control, Client education

Malassezia

Ophthalmic: Cataract, Lens Luxation

Orthopedic: Patellar Luxation

Periodontal Dz - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vaccine

 

Keeshond

Derm: Stress alopecia; Mats, burrs & hot spots

Diabetes (older intact females most at risk) – Wt. control, Client education

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, Glaucoma - annual IOP

Nasal tumors

 

Labrador Retriever

ACL - Client education, avoid jumping, Pet Insurance

Cushings - Adrenal Tumors

Derm: Atopy, Contact Hypersensitivity, Food Allergy - R/O if signs, consistent diet. Malassezia, Otitis; Pododermatitis - check feet, good diet

GI: FB ingestion!! L-P colitis, Megaesophagus; Perianal fistula – work-up if signs occur, Client education re: pet proofing

Haemophilia: Type B or IX - BBT before Surgery

Hemangiosarcoma - Client education, CBC w/ senior screens

Hypothyroidism – can start very young, annual T4 > age 6 or sooner of signs

IMHA/IMTP: Client education w/ vacc. release

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Neoplasia: Lymphoma, MCT - FNA/Biopsy all lumps

Neuro: Epilepsy; Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) – genetic screening

Ophthalmic: Primary Glaucoma - IOP annually > age 6

Orthopedic: ACL tear – client education; OCD - watch growth rate, X-ray if signs; Hip Dysplasia - X-ray while young, Client education

Otitis - Client education, weekly ear cleaning

 

Lhasa apso

Cardiac: MVI – work-up if murmur develops

Derm: Atopy, food allergy - Client education; Lip fold pyoderma

GI: Pyloric stenosis

Neuro: Hydrocephalus, IVDD - Client education, avoid jumping

Ophthalmic: Cataracts; Refractory Corneal ulcers - Client education. PRA; Entropion; Distichiasis; KCS, pigmentary keratitis - STT annually. Cherry eye - Client education.

Periodontal Disease - Porphyromonas vacc.

Resp: Tracheal collapse

Renal: Dysplasia, uroliths - annual U/A

 

Malamute

Behavior: Strong prey drive

Derm: Demodex, generalized - skin scrape suspicious lesions; Follicular dysplasia; Zinc-responsive dermatosis

Diabetes: Older females - Client education

Hypothyroidism - Annual T4

Neoplasia: Anal Gland Carcinoma, Sebaceous Gland Tumors

Ophthalmic: Refractory Corneal Ulcers, Corneal Dystrophy, Cataracts, Glaucoma about age 6 - annual IOP, PRA

 

Maltese

Derm: Mats, burrs & hot spots

MVI: work-up if murmur develops

GI: Pyloric Stenosis

Glaucoma above age 6 - IOP annually

Hydrocephalus, Hypoglycemia - R/O both if CNS signs

Periodontal Disease - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

 

Mastiff

Cardiac: DCM – annual ECG

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma

Orthopedic: ACL, Hip dysplasia – X-rays while young; OCD, Wobblers

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Miniature Pinscher

Behavior: Fearful

Derm: Alopecia

Diabetes - Client education, wt. control

Ophthalmic: Pannus - STT annually

Periodontal Disease - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

Urolithiasis, cystine - annual U/A

 

Newfoundland

Cardiac: DCM – annual ECG

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma

Orthopedic: ACL, Hip dysplasia – X-rays while young; OCD, Wobblers

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Norwegian Elkhound

Neoplasia: SCC of skin

Ophtho: Cataracts; Glaucoma, avg. age of onset 4-7 years; lens luxation; Multifocal retinal dysplasia; PRA, starting at 6 weeks, vision loss by 12-18 mo.

Renal: Familial Renal Disease & Fanconi syndrome, 3mo.-5 yrs of age; Primary renal glucosuria – these dogs may have normal renal function despite glucose in urine.

 

Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever

Hypoadrenocorticism - R/O if signs

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, PRA

 

Old English Sheepdog

Derm: Demodex, especially on paws - skin scrape if lesions; Lip fold pyoderma; Mats, burrs & hot spots; Pododermatitis;

Drug sensitivity: Can be sensitive to Ivermectin, best to use Interceptor/Sentinel

Haemophilia: Type B or IX - BBT before Surgery

Hip Dysplasia, 5th worst breed - hip X-rays early, wt. control

Hypothyroid, usually at 2-6 yrs - T4 annually > age 4-5, sooner if signs

IMHA/IMTP: Client education w/ vacc.

Ophtho: Cataracts, 6 mo. – 6 years; PRA at 4 yrs

 

Papillon

Behavior: Difficult to house train

Cardiac: MVI – W/U if murmur develops

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, PRA

Periodontal Disease - Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vacc.

 

Pekingese

Derm: Flea allergy; Pododermatitis - check feet; Skin fold excess

Drug sensitivity: Rabies-vaccine-associated vasculitis and alopecia

GI: Pyloric stenosis; HGE, usually 2-4 yrs of age

Hydrocephalus: Check for open fontanelles, R/O if signs

IVDD: Wt. control, no jumping, Client education

MVI – work-up if murmur detected

Neoplasia: SCC

Ophthalmic: Cataracts; Corneal ulcers; KCS & pigmentary keratitis- STT annually, Client education; Proptosis – harness, no choke collars

Ortho: Elbow dysplasia

Periodontal Disease: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas vaccine

Repro: Cryptorchidism, umbilical & perianal hernias – check puppies carefully for these problems

Resp: Heat stroke; Respiratory dysplasia: Discuss at last puppy visit, estimate for soft palate surgery w/ spay/neuter estimate, DVM to intubate

 

Pit Bull Terrier

ACL tear - Client education, Pet Insurance

Behavior: Dog-aggression – Client Education

Parvovirus - extra booster at 5 mo. as puppy, annual Parvo vacc. as adults, no 3 year Parvo

MCT - FNA all skin lumps, Client education

 

English & German Pointers

ACL tear - Client education, Pet Insurance

Derm: Pododermatitis, Acral lick granulomas; Discoid lupus; acne; black hair follicular dysplasia; Truncal solar dermatitis; Zinc-responsive Dermatitis

Haemophilia: Von Willebrand's - BBT before Sx

Neoplasia: Cutaneous hemangioma (English); MCT; nasal tumors (GSHP)

Ophtho: Pannus - STT annual; Cataracts – English at 2-3 yrs, Germans at 6-18 mo; PRA; Corneal dystrophy (English) at 6 yrs; Eversion of nictitating membrane (GSHP)

 

Pomeranian

Cardiac: MVI; SSS - ECG annually

Derm: Mats, burrs & hot spots; Pododermatitis

Hydrocephalus: Check for open fontanelles, R/O if signs

Hypothyroidism, age 2-6 – T4 early

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, PRA by age 6

Orthopedic: Atlantoaxial subluxation; Elbow dysplasia – Client education; Patellar Luxation, Periodontal Disease: Frequent Dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Repro: Cryptorchidism, inguinal hernias, testicular cancer – neutering recommended

Tracheal Collapse - X-ray trachea if coughing

 

Miniature, toy and teacup Poodle

Cardiac: MVI – work-up if murmur develops, include echo

Cushings: PDH & Adrenal

Derm: Alopecia, Cushing's Dz, Seborrhea, Malassezia; Otitis - regular ear cleaning & plucking; Anal sac disease, sometimes psychogenic

Diabetes - Wt. management, Client education

Drug sensitivity: Alopecia from injectable steroids, use oral if possible

GI: HGE in Toy & Miniature; Perineal hernia, intact males predisposed

Hemophilia: Von Willebrand's - BBT before surgery

Hydrocephalus - check for open fontanelles, R/O if signs

IMHA/IMTP - Client education w/ Vaccine Release

IVDD - Wt. control, no jumping, Client education

Neoplasia: Lymphoma, oral melanoma - check mouth carefully

Neuro: Epilepsy

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, Distichiasis & Glaucoma (Min. & Toy) - IOP annually; Pigmentary Keratitis - STT annually; PRA

Orthopedic: Legg-Calve-Perthes, Patellar Luxation

Periodontal Disease - Frequent Dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Renal dysplasia - annual U/A

Repro: Cryptorchidism

Tracheal Collapse - X-ray trachea if signs

Urolithiasis: Struvite, Calcium Oxylate - annual U/A

 

Standard poodle

ACL - Client education, Pet Insurance

DCM, esp. Standards, > risk w/ age – annual ECG

GDV - Client education, offer stomach tack at spay/neuter

Hypoadrenocorticism – R/O if signs

Neoplasia: Insulinoma; oral melanoma - check mouth carefully; SCC of the toe

Ophtho: Cataracts

Otitis – Client education

Renal dysplasia – annual U/A, chem. panel when young

Zinc-responsive dermatosis

 

Portuguese water dog

Behavior: Males sometimes aggressive

DCM - Client education, annual ECG

Derm: Alopecia (pattern baldness at early age)

Ophthalmic: Cataracts; Distichiasis - R/O if corneal ulcers; PRA

 

Pug

Derm: Atopy, Alopecia - Client education; Skin fold excess

Dystocia - Client education if breeding

Heat stroke - no heavy exercise in hot/humid weather, avoid car rides in hot weather, Client education

Neoplasia: MCT, oral melanoma - FNA/Biopsy all lumps, check mouth carefully

Ophthalmic: Corneal ulcers, KCS - Client education, STT annually; Proptosis

Orthopedic: Legg-Calve-Perthes; Patellar luxation

Respiratory Dysplasia - Discuss Surgery at last puppy visit, Rx soft palate surgery estimate to do w/ spay/neuter estimate, DVM to intubate

 

Rat Terrier

Behavior: Often snappy

Patellar luxation

Periodontal Dz: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

 

Rhodesian ridgeback

Derm: Zinc-responsive Dermatosis

Hypothyroidism – T4 annually > age 6

Laryngeal paralysis – Client education

Ophthalmic: Cataracts

Ortho: ACL – Client education, Pet insurance; Hip dysplasia – x-rays when young; OCD

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

 

Rottweiler

Behavior: Males may be aggressive

GI: Eosinophilic IBD

Hypothyroidism – T4 annually > age 6

Neoplasia: SCC of the digit, Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

Ophthalmic: Cataracts age 2; Corneal ulcers - Client education

Ortho: ACL - Client education, Pet Insurance; Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education; OCD – Control growth rate

Parvovirus susceptibility: extra Parvo vacc. at 5 mo. of age, annual Parvo vacc., no 3 yr Parvo

 

St. Bernard

DCM – annual ECG

Derm: Lip fold pyoderma

Ortho: ACL - Client education, Pet Insurance; Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education; OCD – Control growth rate

Osteosarcoma- X-rays if lame

Otitis – Client education

 

Samoyed

Diabetes – Weight control, Client education

Ophthalmic: Cataracts age 2-4, Refractory Corneal Ulcers, Corneal Dystrophy, Primary Glaucoma - IOP annually

 

Schipperke

Diabetes – weight control, annual blood & urine screening starting by age 4 (age of onset 4-14 years, avg. 7-9)

Ophthalmic: Cataracts, PRA

Patellar luxation

Periodontal Dz: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

 

Schnauzer

Behavior: Snappy, not always good w/ children/strangers, males worse

Derm: Atopy, Food Allergy, Seasonal Flank Alopecia, Comedo syndrome; Malassezia; Otitis

Diabetes: Wt. control, Client education, annual blood & urine screening

GI: Megaesophagus, HGE, Pancreatitis, Food Allergy

Lipemia - 12 hour fast before blood draws

MVI - Cardiac work-up if murmur detected

Neoplasia: Melanoma, esp. of digits - Remove suspicious lumps

Ophthalmic: Cataracts; KCS - STT annually > age 6

Periodontal Disease: Frequent Dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Portosystemic shunt - W/U if signs

Renal Dysplasia - annual U/A

Sick Sinus Syndrome - ECG annually

Urolithiasis: Ammonium Urate secondary to PSS, all other kinds as well - annual U/A

 

Giant Schnauzer

ACL- Client education, Pet Insurance

Cataracts

GDV- Client education, offer stomach tack at spay/neuter

Hypothyroid - T4 annually > age 6, sooner if signs

Giant Schnauzers SCC of digits

 

Scottish Terrier

Derm: Atopy - Client education; Demodex - skin scrape lesions

Dystocia - Client education if breeding

Hemophilia: B, IX & Von Willebrand's - BBT before Surgery

Neoplasia: Bladder cancer - annual U/A, Client instructions to not use lawn chemicals wh/ act as trigger; lymphoma; MCT; Melanoma - FNA/Biopsy all lumps

Orthopedic: Scottie Cramp; Osteopathy

 

Shar Pei

Behavior: Many are aggressive

Derm: Atopy - Client education; ; Demodex - skin scrape suspicious lesions; Food allergy - consistent diet;; Lip fold pyoderma; Malassezia; MCT at very young ages, FNA lumps early; Mucinous Dermatitis; Otitis; Seborrhea; Skin fold excess

Familial Shar Pei Fever - Client education

GI: GDV; Megaesophagus, HGE, Pancreatitis

Neoplasia: MCT at very young age, FNA lumps early

Ophtho: Entropion/ectropion, may need multiple surgeries to correct – Client education; cataracts; glaucoma – annual IOP; lens luxation

Ortho: ACL tear – Client education, Pet insurance; Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education

Renal Dysplasia: Amyloidosis - annual U/A

 

Shetland Sheepdog

Collie Eye Anomaly - Client education if breeding

Derm: Dermatomyositis – Biopsy if lesions; Malassezia - good diet & fatty acids; Seborrhea

Drug sensitivity: No Ivermectin, use Interceptor/Sentinel

Hemophilia: B, IX, Von Willebrand's - BBT before Surgery

Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education

Ophthalmic: KCS (Normal STT is 16) - STT annually

Orthopedic: Polyarthritis, Ligament Laxity

Periodontal Dz: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Repro: Cryptorchidism, testicular tumors

 

Shih Tzu

Derm: Atopy - Client education

Drug Sensitivity: Alopecia from injectable steroids, use oral if possible

IVDD - Wt. control, avoid jumping, Client education

MVI: work-up if murmur develops

Ophthalmic: Corneal ulcers; Pigmentary Keratitis, KCS - annual STT; Proptosis

Periodontal Dz: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Renal Dysplasia & Glucosuria - annual U/A

Resp: Tracheal collapse

Urolithiasis: All kinds - annual U/A

 

Siberian Husky

Behavior: Strong prey drive

Derm: Discoid Lupus; Eosinophilic Granuloma; Nasal Depigmentation - Biopsy suspected lesions; Zinc-responsive dermatosis

Hypertension - BP annually

Laryngeal Paralysis - Client education

Neoplasia: Basal cell tumors, sebaceous gland tumors, Hemangiopericytoma, perianal gland adenomas, testicular cancer

Neuro: Epilepsy

Ophthalmic: Juvenile Cataracts; Corneal Dystrophy; Pannus - STT annually; Primary Glaucoma - IOP annually; PRA

 

Springer Spaniel

Behavior: Females may be fearful, males may be aggressive. Springer Rage Syndrome

Derm: Acral lick dermatitis; Food Allergy, Lip fold pyoderma; Malassezia; Seborrhea IMHA/IMTP - Client education w/ Vaccine Release

Neoplasia:Histiocytoma, Melanoma, Hemangioma (cutaneous), Anal Sac Carcinoma

Ophthalmic: Refractory Corneal Ulcers, Corneal Dystrophy, Glaucoma – annual IOP; Cataracts, PRA, KCS & Pannus all in English Springers – annual STT

Orthopedic: Hip Dysplasia - X-rays early, Client education; Myasthenia Gravis - R/O if signs

Urolithiasis: Calcium Oxylate - annual U/A; Sphincter incontinence in females

 

Vizsla

ACL tear – Client education, Pet insurance

GDV – Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

IMTP – Client education

Ophtho: Cataracts; Glaucoma – annual IOP; PRA

 

 Weimaraner

ACL tear- Client education, Pet Insurance

Derm: Demodex - skin scrape suspicious lesions; Pododermatitis

GDV - Client education, offer stomach tack w/ spay/neuter

Neoplasia: Conjunctival melanoma; MCT; Osteosarcoma - X-rays if lame

Ophthalmic: Corneal ulcers - Client education; Conjunctival Melanoma - Surgery if found

 

Welsh terrier

Glaucoma, lens luxation – annual IOP

 

West Highland White Terrier

Derm: Atopy; Demodex; Food allergy - Client education, consistent diet; Malassezia, Seborrhea - good diet

Chronic hepatitis – annual blood screening

Ophthalmic: Cataracts; Corneal Ulcers - Client education; KCS - STT annually

Orthopedic: Legg-Calve-Perthes; Little White Shakers Disease

Polycystic Kidney Disease - annual U/A

 

Wheaton Terrier

Derm: Atopy, Food allergy - Client education, consistent diet; Malassezia, Seborrhea - good diet

Ophthalmic: Cataracts

Orthopedic: Legg-Calve-Perthes; Little White Shakers Disease

GN, Polycystic Kidney Disease - annual U/A

 

Yorshire Terrier

Cushing's: PDH

Drug sensitivity: Alopecia from injectable steroids, use oral if possible. Vasculitis at site of Rabies vacc.

GI: Portosystemic shunt, often microvascular

Hydrocephalus

Hypertension - annual BP

MVI: work-up when murmur develops

Ophthalmic: Cataracts as young adults; KCS - STT annually

Orthopedic: Atlanto-axial subluxation; Legg-Calve-Perthes, Patellar Luxation

Periodontal Dz: Frequent dentals, Porphyromonas Vaccine

Repro: Cryptorchidism

Tracheal Collapse - X-ray trachea if coughing

Urolithiasis: All kinds - annual U/A

 

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

AFGHAN HOUND

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

 

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Cardiomyopathy: Dilatative Cardiomyopathy, or DCM, is a deadly heart problem. Most people who require heart transplants do so because of this disease, in which the heart becomes larger, thinner & weaker until it can no longer effectively pump blood to the body. Signs may be gradual heart failure or sometimes sudden death from an irregular heart rhythm. Watch for weakness or acting tired; fainting or collapse; labored breathing or coughing.

Recommendations: Annual ECG screening after age 1, to look for abnormal heart rhythms (picture at right).

ProBNP blood testing to detect heart enlargement is also recommended. If abnormalities are detected, an echocardiogram will confirm the diagnosis. An echocardiogram is recommended annually after about age five or six.

 

Hypothyroidism: many breeds are prone to this common condition, in which the body is not making enough thyroid hormone. It is most common in middle aged or older large breed dogs, though it has been documented in dogs less than a year of age, and in most breeds. Symptoms include dry skin and coat, hair loss, and susceptibility to other skin diseases such as seborrhea; weight gain; lethargy; mental dullness, sleeping excessively, fearfulness, aggression or other behavioral changes; high cholesterol levels. The lower the thyroid level, the more of these signs are likely to be present.

            Treatment of the disease is simple. We supplement with oral thyroid medication that artificially replaces the hormones the dog is not producing.

            Recommendation: Blood testing annually beginning at age 4-6, the age when many Afghans start to develop this problem.

 

Videos: adult - GDV, senior - Arthritis

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Airedale terrier

 

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Cardiomyopathy: Dilatative Cardiomyopathy, or DCM, is a deadly heart problem. Most people who require heart transplants do so because of this disease, in which the heart becomes larger, thinner & weaker until it can no longer effectively pump blood to the body. Signs may be gradual heart failure or sometimes sudden death from an irregular heart rhythm. Watch for weakness or acting tired; fainting or collapse; labored breathing or coughing.

Recommendations: Annual ECG screening after age 1, to look for abnormal heart rhythms (picture at right).

ProBNP blood testing to detect heart enlargement is also recommended. If abnormalities are detected, an echocardiogram will confirm the diagnosis. An echocardiogram is recommended annually after about age five or six.

 

Hypothyroidism: many breeds are prone to this common condition, in which the body is not making enough thyroid hormone. It is most common in middle aged or older large breed dogs. Symptoms include dry skin and coat, hair loss, and susceptibility to other skin diseases such as seborrhea; weight gain; lethargy; mental dullness, sleeping excessively, behavioral changes; and high cholesterol levels. The lower the thyroid level, the more of these signs are likely to be present. Early diagnosis and treatment prevents more serious symptoms.

            Treatment of the disease is simple. We supplement with oral thyroid medication that artificially replaces the hormones the dog is not producing.

            Recommendation: Blood testing annually beginning at age 6-9, sooner if symptoms develop.

 

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye: also known as KCS, this is a disease in which the tear glands no longer produce enough tears to keep the eye moist. Eye ulcers and infections result. This is a painful condition that can be diagnosed and treated before symptoms appear.

Image result for STT in a dog'            Diagnosis of KCS is simple. A paper strip is tucked under the lower eyelid. Tears soak the strip. After 1 minute we look to see how many millimeters of the strip became wet. This test is called a Schirmer tear test, or STT. A reading under 15 is low. 16-18 is borderline, and above that is normal. Treatment consists of eye ointment that will be necessary for the remainder of the pet’s life.

            Recommendation: The STT should be done at least once a year once a pet reaches age 9, sooner if symptoms become apparent.

 

Lymphoma, also known as lymphosarcoma, is a common form of cancer in dogs. In this disease, the body forms abnormal lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. Because white blood cells can be found throughout the body, this cancer can show up almost anywhere. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen or liver, intestinal disease, skin nodules, weight loss or fever. Occasionally it shows up in the eyes, brain or spinal cord, the kidneys, the lungs or elsewhere.

            Lymphoma is a very treatable form of cancer, with an 80% success rate in dogs receiving chemotherapy. Early diagnosis improves prognosis.

Recommendation: Lymphoma is one of the few types of cancer that can sometimes be found with a complete blood count. Blood testing at least twice a year after age 5 may allow an early diagnosis. Watch for swollen glands, panting or labored breathing and weight loss, and call us if any signs appear.

 

Videos: What Is Breed-Specific Wellness; Senior - Eye Diseases, Arthritis

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Akita

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

 

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Diabetes is common in some breeds. It usually develops in mid-life, between 3 and 10 years of age. Signs include drinking & urinating much more than normal, and weight loss despite a good appetite. If you notice your dog drinking more water, call us right away. This is one of the most common symptoms of illness in dogs, yet one frequently ignored by pet owners.

            Recommendation: Annual blood and urine screening, sooner if symptoms are present. Weight control is very important to prevent and control diabetes.

 

Image result for glaucoma in dogs'Glaucoma is an extremely painful disease that rapidly leads to blindness. People describe it as feeling as if you are being stabbed in the eye with an ice pick. The eyeball is a tough, rubbery ball containing fluid. The fluid inside the eye is produced by cells within the eye, and this fluid drains back out of the eye via tiny drainage channels. When the fluid cannot drain out as fast as it is being produced it builds up, causing stretching and swelling of the eyeball. The fluid pressure is not only very painful, but it literally crushes the delicate cells lining the retina, quickly leading to blindness. In Beagles glaucoma usually starts between the ages of two and five.

            Recommendation: Annual glaucoma screenin. The test we perform is called an intraocular pressure, or IOP. It is quick and inexpensive, and could save your pet’s sight.

 

Hypothyroidism, or low thyroid function, is common in older dogs of all breeds but some breeds are predisposed to developing this problem much earlier in life. Weight gain, lethargy and skin problems are the most common signs. Temperament or behavior changes can be seen as well. In fact, one study showed that adult dogs that had a shift in behavior, for example becoming more timid or more aggressive, often have hypothyroidism.

            Recommendation: Annual thyroid blood level after age 7, sooner if symptoms develop.

 

Videos: what Is Breed-Specific Wellness; Senior - Eye Diseases, Arthritis, Fatty Acids

 


 

 

BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Australian CATTLE DOG

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

 

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Urolithiasis: “Uro” refers to the urologic system, “lithiasis” is stone formation. Uroliths are bladder or kidney stones. There are half a dozen different types of stones that can form, and certain breeds of dog are prone to certain types of stones. Cattle dogs are prone to stones made of cysteine.

            Recommendation: Urine testing annually or when signs are present, then surgery and special diets if necessary.

 

Videos: What Is Breed-Specific Wellness; Seniors – Arthritis, Fatty Acids


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Australian Shepherd

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Drug Sensitivity:  Some breeds of dogs do not do well with certain medications. Herding breeds can inherit a gene called MDR1, that affects how they process about twenty different drugs, some of which are commonly used. These drugs should be avoided in these breeds but we can’t know to do that without genetic testing.

Recommendations: MDR1 DNA testing should be done once, early in your dog’s life.

 

Videos: MDR1; Seniors – Arthritis, Fatty Acids

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

   Basenji

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Fanconi Syndrome: Basenjis have a serious inherited disease problem called Fanconi Syndrome. Excellent materials are available at Basenji Breed Association websites (try Basenjicompanions.org, Basenjiclub.com or caninegeneticdiseases.net). It is important that you understand this disease and how to monitor for it.       

Recommendations: Basenjis should be urine tested monthly for urine glucose (sugar), ketones and protein, any of which will start to show up in the urine when Fanconi Syndrome begins. Test strips can be purchased through your veterinarian and are simple to use. Catch a teaspoon or two of urine from your dog, dip the little test strip into the urine and compare the color change on each little test pad with the results key. Any posistive findings should be reported to your veterinarian. If diagnosed and treated early it is very treatable. If diagnosed late, irreversible kidney damage results and is usually fatal.

 

Urolithiasis: “Uro” refers to the urologic system, “lithiasis” is stone formation. Uroliths are bladder or kidney stones. There are half a dozen different types of stones that can form, and certain breeds of dog are prone to certain types of stones.

            Symptoms of urinary tract stones include blood in the urine, straining to urinate or inability to urinate if the urethra is blocked with stones or crystals. This last symptom is quickly fatal, so a pet, usually male, unable to urinate should be examined immediately. In the early stages, stones may be suspected if blood or crystals are seen in a urine sample test.

            Recommendation: Urine testing annually or when signs are present, then surgery and special diets if necessary.

 

Videos: Check Basenji website


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Basset Hound

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

Hemophilia: There are several types of inherited bleeding disorders, or coagulopathies, which occur in dogs. They range in severity from very mild to very severe. Many times a pet seems normal until a serious injury occurs or surgery is performed, and then severe bleeding can result.

            Recommendation: DNA test when a pet is young. If no DNA test has been done a Buccal Bleeding Time can be done at the time of surgery. There is also a specific blood test

for Von Willebrand’s disease prior to surgery.

 

Urolithiasis: “Uro” refers to the urologic system, “lithiasis” is stone formation. Uroliths are bladder or kidney stones. Symptoms of urinary tract stones include blood in the urine, straining to urinate or inability to urinate if the urethra is blocked with stones or crystals. This last symptom is quickly fatal, so a pet, usually male, unable to urinate should be examined immediately. In the early stages, stones may be suspected if blood or crystals are seen in a urine sample test.

            Recommendation: Urine testing annually or when signs are present, then surgery and special diets if necessary.

 

Videos: What Is Breed-Specific Wellness, How to Clean Ears; Seniors – Arthritis, Fatty Acids

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Beagle

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Image result for glaucoma in dogs'Glaucoma is an extremely painful disease that rapidly leads to blindness. People describe it as feeling as if you are being stabbed in the eye with an ice pick. The eyeball is a tough, rubbery ball containing fluid. The fluid inside the eye is produced by cells within the eye, and this fluid drains back out of the eye via tiny drainage channels. When the fluid cannot drain out as fast as it is being produced it builds up, causing stretching and swelling of the eyeball. The fluid pressure is not only very painful, but it literally crushes the delicate cells lining the retina, quickly leading to blindness. In Beagles glaucoma usually starts between the ages of two and five.

            Recommendation: Annual glaucoma screening for all adult and senior Beagles. The test we perform is called an intraocular pressure, or IOP. It is quick and inexpensive, and could save your pet’s sight.

 

Lymphoma, also known as lymphosarcoma, is a common form of cancer in dogs. In this disease, the body forms abnormal lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. Because white blood cells can be found throughout the body, this cancer can show up almost anywhere. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen or liver, intestinal disease, skin nodules, weight loss or fever. Occasionally it shows up in the eyes, brain or spinal cord, the kidneys, the lungs or elsewhere.

            Lymphoma is a very treatable form of cancer, with an 80% success rate in dogs receiving chemotherapy. Early diagnosis improves prognosis.

Recommendation: Lymphoma is one of the few types of cancer that can sometimes be found with a complete blood count. Blood testing at least twice a year after age 5 may allow an early diagnosis. Watch for swollen glands, panting or labored breathing and weight loss, and call us if any signs appear.

 

Videos: IVDD, Eye diseases, Periodontal Disease


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Bernese Mountain Dog

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Cardiomyopathy: Dilatative Cardiomyopathy, or DCM, is a deadly heart problem. Most people who require heart transplants do so because of this disease, in which the heart becomes larger, thinner & weaker until it can no longer effectively pump blood to the body. Signs may be gradual heart failure or sometimes sudden death from an irregular heart rhythm. Watch for weakness or acting tired; fainting or collapse; labored breathing or coughing.

Recommendations: Annual ECG screening after age 1, to look for abnormal heart rhythms (picture at right).

ProBNP blood testing to detect heart enlargement is also recommended. If abnormalities are detected, an echocardiogram will confirm the diagnosis. An echocardiogram is recommended annually after about age five or six.

 

Glomerulonephropathy: GN is an inherited form of kidney disease. It slowly damages the kidneys, so affected dogs suffer kidney failure, often at an early age. Various infections and other illnesses can also lead to GN.

Damaged kidneys leak protein, so the disease is diagnosed by testing for excessive protein in the urine. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more we can help your pet. Urine samples should be checked annually for excess protein levels. Special diets help to support kidney function, thereby lengthening & improving life.

            Recommendation: Annual protein/creatinine ratio urine test after age 1.

 

Videos: What is Breed-Specific Wellness, GN in Wheatens, Fatty Acids, Arthritis


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Bichon Frise

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

Hemophilia: There are several types of inherited bleeding disorders, or coagulopathies, which occur in dogs. They range in severity from very mild to very severe. Many times a pet seems normal until a serious injury occurs or surgery is performed, and then severe bleeding can result.

            Recommendation: DNA test when a pet is young. If no DNA test has been done a Buccal Bleeding Time can be done at the time of surgery.

 

Urolithiasis: “Uro” refers to the urologic system, “lithiasis” is stone formation. Uroliths are bladder or kidney stones. Symptoms of urinary tract stones include blood in the urine, straining to urinate or inability to urinate if the urethra is blocked with stones or crystals. This last symptom is quickly fatal, so a pet, usually male, unable to urinate should be examined immediately. In the early stages, stones may be suspected if blood or crystals are seen in a urine sample test.

            Recommendation: Urine testing annually or when signs are present, then surgery and special diets if necessary.

 

Videos: What is Breed-Specific Wellness, Periodontal disease

 

 


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

BLOODHOUND/COONHOUND

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Image result for STT in a dog'Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye: also known as KCS, this is a disease in which the tear glands no longer produce enough tears to keep the eye moist. Eye ulcers and infections result. This is a painful condition that can be diagnosed and treated before symptoms appear.

            Diagnosis of KCS is simple. A paper strip is tucked under the lower eyelid. Tears soak the strip. After 1 minute we look to see how many millimeters of the strip became wet. This test is called a Schirmer tear test, or STT. A reading under 15 is low. 16-18 is borderline, and above that is normal. Treatment consists of eye ointment that will be necessary for the remainder of the pet’s life.

            Recommendation: The STT should be done at least once a year once a pet reaches age 9, sooner if symptoms become apparent.

 

Videos: Eye Diseases, Arthritis, Fatty Acids, How to Clean Your Dog’s Ears


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Border Collie

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Drug Sensitivity:  Some breeds of dogs do not do well with certain medications. Herding breeds can inherit a gene called MDR1, that affects how they process about twenty different drugs, some of which are commonly used. These drugs should be avoided in these breeds but we can’t know to do that without genetic testing.

Recommendations: MDR1 DNA testing should be done once, early in your dog’s life.

 

Image result for glaucoma in dogs'Glaucoma is an extremely painful disease that rapidly leads to blindness. People describe it as feeling as if you are being stabbed in the eye with an ice pick. The eyeball is a tough, rubbery ball containing fluid. The fluid inside the eye is produced by cells within the eye, and this fluid drains back out of the eye via tiny drainage channels. When the fluid cannot drain out as fast as it is being produced it builds up, causing stretching and swelling of the eyeball. The fluid pressure is not only very painful, but it literally crushes the delicate cells lining the retina, quickly leading to blindness.

            Recommendation: Annual glaucoma screening for senior border collies. The test we perform is called an intraocular pressure, or IOP. It is quick and inexpensive, and could save your pet’s sight.

 

Image result for STT in a dog'Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye: also known as KCS, this is a disease in which the tear glands no longer produce enough tears to keep the eye moist. Eye ulcers and infections result. This is a painful condition that can be diagnosed and treated before symptoms appear.

            Diagnosis of KCS is simple. A paper strip is tucked under the lower eyelid. Tears soak the strip. After 1 minute we look to see how many millimeters of the strip became wet. This test is called a Schirmer tear test, or STT. A reading under 15 is low. 16-18 is borderline, and above that is normal. Treatment consists of eye ointment that will be necessary for the remainder of the pet’s life.

            Recommendation: The STT should be done at least once a year once a pet reaches age 9, sooner if symptoms become apparent.

 

Videos: MDR1; Seniors - Eye Diseases, Fatty Acids, Arthritis


BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

Boston terrier

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Image result for glaucoma in dogs'Glaucoma is an extremely painful disease that rapidly leads to blindness. People describe it as feeling as if you are being stabbed in the eye with an ice pick. The eyeball is a tough, rubbery ball containing fluid. The fluid inside the eye is produced by cells within the eye, and this fluid drains back out of the eye via tiny drainage channels. When the fluid cannot drain out as fast as it is being produced it builds up, causing stretching and swelling of the eyeball. The fluid pressure is not only very painful, but it literally crushes the delicate cells lining the retina, quickly leading to blindness.

            Recommendation: Annual glaucoma screening for adult and senior Boston terriers. The test we perform is called an intraocular pressure, or IOP. It is quick and inexpensive, and could save your pet’s sight.

 

Image result for STT in a dog'Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye: also known as KCS, this is a disease in which the tear glands no longer produce enough tears to keep the eye moist. Eye ulcers and infections result. This is a painful condition that can be diagnosed and treated before symptoms appear.

            Diagnosis of KCS is simple. A paper strip is tucked under the lower eyelid. Tears soak the strip. After 1 minute we look to see how many millimeters of the strip became wet. This test is called a Schirmer tear test, or STT. A reading under 15 is low. 16-18 is borderline, and above that is normal. Treatment consists of eye ointment that will be necessary for the remainder of the pet’s life.

            Recommendation: The STT should be done at least once a year once a pet reaches age 9, sooner if symptoms become apparent.

 

Videos: Periodontal Disease; Seniors - Eye Diseases

 


 

 

 

BREED RISK RECOMMENDATIONS

BoUVIER DES FLANDRES

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Many disease problems are genetic or inherited. Certain breeds are at risk for certain diseases. This doesn’t mean that just because your dog belongs to a certain breed he will always develop these problems – it just means that he’s more at risk than the average dog. It also doesn’t mean that these are the only diseases your pet could get – life is not that simple. It does, however, help to guide the medical care your pet needs.

 

Just as some genetically related diseases in humans don’t begin to cause problems until later in life – heart disease or breast cancer, for example – many genetic diseases in dogs appear late in life. Some of these can be tested for, enabling earlier diagnosis and intervention.

 

Image result for glaucoma in dogs'Glaucoma is an extremely painful disease that rapidly leads to blindness. People describe it as feeling as if you are being stabbed in the eye with an ice pick. The eyeball is a tough, rubbery ball containing fluid. The fluid inside the eye is produced by cells within the eye, and this fluid drains back out of the eye via tiny drainage channels. When the fluid cannot drain out as fast as it is being prod